Keyboard lexicon

This is a collection of 800 technical terms you may come across during keyboard building and customization (theory and practice of keyboard building, logical layout design, typing and ergonomics).

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0279 - A size/type of {Mill-Max socket}s with long tails and hexagonal lips before the main lip. On a {PCB} with good tolerances this can be pushed in without soldering, but this may expand the hole and damage the PCB. 0305 - A size/type of {Mill-Max socket}s with a thicker lip compared to {7305}s. The long tail may be a problem with tight spacing as they may touch the bottom of the board. 0402 - A tiny {SMD} package footprint, 1 mm x 0.5 mm. {1005} in the metric nomenclature. 0603 - A small {SMD} package footprint, 1.55 mm x 0.85 mm. {1608} in the metric nomenclature. 1005 - A tiny {SMD} package footprint, 1 mm x 0.5 mm. {0402} in the imperial nomenclature. 1608 - A small {SMD} package footprint, 1.55 mm x 0.85 mm. {0603} in the imperial nomenclature. 1u - One key unit. A unit of key width. A single-width key, e.g. an alphanumeric one. Also see: {all-1u}. 1.25u - A key width of 1.25 key unit. E.g. {modifier}s of the {bottom row} on a {standard keyboard}. 1.5u - A key width of 1.5 key unit. E.g. Tab on a standard keyboard. 1.75u - A key width of 1.75 key unit. E.g. Caps Lock on a standard keyboard. 1800 - A slightly cramped {fullsize} keyboard. A {form factor} similar to a {96%}, but with some breathing room around the arrows and {F-key}s. 1n4007 - A type of {diode} with a switching speed in the microsec range. 1n4148 - Probably the most popular {diode} for keyboard projects. Switching speed in the nanosec range. 2u - A key width of 2 {key unit}. E.g. Backspace on a {standard keyboard}. 2.25u - A key width of 2.25 key unit. E.g. left Shift or Enter on a standard {ANSI} keyboard. 2.75u - A key width of 2.75 key unit. E.g. right Shift on the standard keyboard. 204g0 @ Krytox 204g0 205g0 @ Krytox 205g0 30% - A minimalistic {form factor} with only the {alpha}s, give or take. E.g. the Gherkin. 3203 @ Tribosys 3203 3204 @ Tribosys 3204 3u-12u - Keys with that width, expressed in {key unit}. Usually spacebars. 4-pin style - The more common {leg} type on the {upper housing}. 40% - A {form factor}/{physical layout} with only the {alpha}s and some {modifier}s. (No {numpad}, number row, {F-row}, navigation and arrow cluster.) 60/40 - A reference to a solder material with 60% tin and 40% lead ({Sn60Pb40}). 60% - A {form factor}/{physical layout} without the {numpad}, {F-row}, navigation and arrow cluster. 6.25u - The width of the standard spacebar. 6KRO - 6-key {rollover}. This is the maximal number of simultaneously pressed keys registered according to the USB {HID} Standard's boot protocol. Many keyboards keep this limitation for the report protocol as well. 70% - A quite rare {TKL} {form factor}/{physical layout} without {F-key}s. 7305 - A size/type of {Mill-Max socket}s. Just about identical to the {0305}, but with a shorter tail and lip. 75% - A more compact version of the {tenkeyless}/{TKL} {form factor}, with the arrow and navigation cluster crammed to the right of the {alpha}s. 80% - A {tenkeyless}/{TKL} {form factor} (without the {numpad}). It has 87-88 keys, but the overall width is about 80% of a {fullsize}. 87% @ 80% 96% - A {form factor} with the arrow and navigation cluster moved around to get a more compact {100%}. 100% - The classic {physical layout}, a {fullsize} keyboard. A* @ A-star A-star @ Pololu A-star ABS - A {keycap} material (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene). Gets easier yellow and shiny compared to {PBT}. ACA @ ant colony algorithm acoustic cutout - A {cutout} in the {plate} to alter the acoustics of the {case} (in contrast to cutouts for {switch}es). acrylic - A popular material for {plate}s and {case}s. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene @ ABS action code - The 16 bit code generated by a keypress (e.g. in {QMK}). Sometimes used as a synonym for {keycode}; activation force - The pressing force measured at the {activation point} (to register the keypress). activation point - The {travel distance} required to register the keypress. actuation force - The pressing force measured at the {actuation point} (to register the keypress). actuation point - The {travel distance} needed to register the keypress. add-on kit - A {kit} of a {keyset} other than the {base kit}, covering less conventional {layout}s. See: {extension kit}. addressable LED - A chain of LEDs where each LED has a microchip that understands a special protocol sent over a single wire (instead of using a wire per color) and the data signal can be passed on. AHK @ AutoHotKey Alice - A popular {monoblock} {split} design with {classic staggering}. all-1u - A {physical layout} with {1u} keys only, e.g. most {ortholinear} and many {split} designs. all-R3 - An {uniform} {keyset} with exclusively the {R3} keys of a {sculpted} profile. Alpaca - A {linear} {switch} colored to match the {SA} Bliss {keycap} set with opaque grey {housing} and pink {stem}. One of the first custom colorway ({recolor}) switches. alpha - The keys belonging to the A-Z letters. alphabetic layout - A {logical layout} listing {alpha}s in alphabetical order. Used mostly with specialized data entry with one-two fingers (e.g. for pilots in gloves). Alps - A Japanese manufacturer of {keyswitch}es ({Alps switch}) and other electronic components like {rotary encoder}s. Alps mount - A non-{MX compatible} {stem} {mount} with a horizontal rectangle. Alps switch - A discontinued {switch type} by {Alps}. Because of the different {stem} they are not {MX}-compatible. Recreated by Matias ({Matias Alps}). alternative layout - A non-standard {logical layout} other than {QWERTY}/{QWERTZ}. angle mod - A modification of the {Colemak} {alternative layout}. The keys along the bottom-left are moved one space to the left. anodized - A decorative metal finish usually on aluminium {case}s. ANSI layout - The standard US layout. ant colony algorithm (ACA) - A mathematical model for {logical layout optimization}. anti-ghosting - A feature and marketing buzzword hinting at a subset of keys working well together. See {ghosting}. Arduino - An ecosystem of (often {open source}) {development board}s and {IDE}. E.g. the {Pro Micro} started as an Arduino project. Arisu - Japanization of the name {Alice}. Aristotle style stem - A hybrid between a one-piece {clicky} {stem} and a {click jacket} style stem (as seen on vintage Aristotle boards). ARM - A family of {microcontroller}s introduced by Acron and manufactured by companies like Apple, Samsung, Nvidia etc. See also: {AVR}, {Atmel} arpeggiating - A method to input more than 6 simultaneous characters on a non-{NKRO} board in {Plover} or {stenography} in general. artisan - A crafted {keycap} often for the look with limited functionality. assembled - A keyboard ready to use (in contrast to a {kit}). Atmega - A family of {AVR} microcontrollers by {Atmel}. Atmega32U4 - A popular {microcontroller} model by {Atmel} with built-in {HID support}. Atmel - A company designing and manufacturing {microcontroller}s. Acquired by Microchip Technology in 2016. Atreus - A characteristic {fixed-angle} {monoblock} {split} keyboard designed by Phil Hagelberg. AutoHotKey - A popular automation tool running on the host computer. Often combined with rarely used {F-keys} (F13-F24) to fire software/macros on a keypress. auto-router - A feature of {PCB} designer software to route the {trace}s automatically. aviator connector - A {detachable connector} like {GX12}/{GX16}, {YC8}, {LEMO} etc., used in custom cables. AVR - A family of {microcontroller}s developed by {Atmel}. AVRDude - A (command prompt) software to write various {microcontroller}s of the {AVR} family. AVRDUDESS - A {GUI} for {AVRDude}. AWG - The US system of wire gauges. AZERTY - The default French {logical layout} with the characters AZERTY in the top row. back plate - The back face of the {stem}. backlight - Mostly in-switch {LED} light shining through {keycap}s, but the term is also used for {underglow}. backlit @ backlit keycap backlit keycap - A {keycap} letting {LED}-light shine through. bag-lubing - A bulk {lubing} method. E.g. {spring}s and {stem}s put and shaken in a plastic bag with {lube} in it (rather than by manual application with a brush). band aid mod - A {stabilizer} {mod} to prevent hitting the {PCB} by the stabilizer slider and reduce the rattle. base housing @ bottom housing base kit - A {kit} of a {keyset} covering most conventional keyboard {layout}s from {fullsize} to {60%}. See: {extension kit}. base layer - The default {logical layer} (generally lowercase letters). There can be multiple base layers in a {keymap}. base plate - The bottom layer of a multilayer keyboard {case}. battleship - A keyboard with a rather big footprint like a 122-key {IBM Model M}, but even a {fullsize} for some. battlecruiser - A keyboard with a rather big footprint like a 122-key {IBM Model M}, but even a {fullsize} for some. beam spring - An old switch type, the grandfather of {clicky} switches. Introduced in the 1970s, their complex capacitive mechanism and space consuming design produces legendary switch feel, but manufacturing costs led IBM to phase them out (source). BÉPO - A French {alternative layout}: big-ass Enter - A large, characteristically shaped Enter {keycap}. (With the Steelseries 6Gv2 as its last holdout (?).) bigram @ bigraph bigraph - A character pair. An important element of {logical layout optimization}. bigraph frequency - The relative (or sometimes absolute) occurrence of {bigraph}s in a {corpus}. An important statistical input of {optimization model}s and {logical layout optimization} in general. bin - The file extension of the compiled firmware in {bin file} format. bin file - The {compiled} {firmware} in binary format (ready for {flashing}). More often, the file extension is {hex}. binning - Throwing out items from the stock (e.g. a manufacturer) that aren't within specific tolerances. bit bang @ bitbang bitbang - A protocol and a driver type for LEDs, e.g for {QMK}s {RGB lighting} and {RGB matrix} features (doc). black pill - An ambiguous name used for various STM32-based {development board}s. black switch - A heavier {linear} {keyswitch}. blank - Keycaps without printed, etched or any indication of letters or other symbols on them. See also: {otaku}. bleeding - The unwanted leaking of {LED} light at backlit {cap}s. blocker - A placeholder on the {plate}/{case} to cover the unused area. Also: {WKL blocker} blue @ blue switch blue switch - A {clicky} {keyswitch}. Blue was the {stem} color of clickies in the original {Cherry MX} lineup. BluePhage Express - A {development board} with {NRF52840} {controller} supporting wireless keyboards by SouthPaw. Bluetooth - The most common protocol for wireless keyboards. board - Reference to a keyboard, {development board} or {PCB}. Boba @ Boba U4 Boba U4 - A silent {tactile} {switch} by Gazzew with a large, smooth 'D' shaped {tactile bump} with no {pre-travel} (review). Comes with 62g and 68g spring weights. bolt mod - A {mod} for {IBM Model M} keyboards. Replacing the plastic rivets that hold the keyboard mechanism together with screws and nuts. bootloader - The "BIOS" of {microcontroller}s which loads the {firmware} when powering up or manages firmware updates. bootloader mode - The mode to {flash} the keyboard with a new {firmware}. You can enter bootloader mode by {soft reset}, {hard reset} or with {bootmagic}. bootmagic - A system for configuring the keyboard during initialization (without the need of {flashing}). E.g. entering {bootloader mode}, switching features like debugging, default {layer}s etc. bottom mount - A {mounting style} securing the {PCB}/{plate} to the bottom frame of the {case}. bottom out - Pressing a key fully until it can no longer travel, hitting the bottom {housing}. bottom row - The lowest row of a standard(ish) keyboard with most {modifier}s and the spacebar. bottoming out @ bottom out BoW - Black labels on White {keycaps}. A popular color combination. box stem - The uniquely shaped {stem} of dust-proof {box switch}es by {Kailh}. box switch - A family of dust-proof switches by {Kailh} (with slightly reduced {wobble}). See: {jade} bounce - Regular switches report a lot of keypresses for one physical actuation. This noise or bouncing is handled by the firmware (debounce). bounce time - The time delay needed for the signal to settle or the time the debounce algorithm waits to evaluate the switch state. breadbin - A high, characteristically rounded vintage {case} design (e.g. that of some C64s). breathing - A {backlight} effect in {QMK}. brick - To put a {microcontroller} or keyboard into a terminally unresponsive state (beyond repair). E.g. messing up the {bootloader}. bricked - Unresponsive {microcontroller} or keyboard due to user error (often beyond repair). bridge - To use a piece of wire to connect the circuitry broken by a {lifted} {pad}/{trace} on the {PCB}. brief - Shortcuts in {stenography}. They help to save keystrokes by letting you type fewer {stroke}s to get a word that might otherwise require several strokes. brown @ brown switch brown switch - A silent {tactile} {keyswitch}. Brown was the {stem} color of tactiles in the original {Cherry MX} lineup. bucky bits - The {keycode}/{scancode} bits generated by {modifiers} like Shift, Ctrl, Meta, Hyper, Super. buckling spring - A {keyswitch} design where the {spring}'s motion is not linear. The spring pivoting the hammer buckles, i.e. collapses, at a certain point, providing auditory and tactile feedback (wiki). build automation - The process of automating the creation of a software build: compiling computer source code into binary code, packaging binary code, and running automated tests. build environment - The Linux/Unix based environment to run {QMK} and compile the {firmware}. build log - A journal of building a keyboard. Probably the greatest source of information for DIY builders (from scratch). (Collection of build logs.) building - To build a keyboard or build/{compile} the {firmware}. burger mount - A {mounting style}: {top mount} with {O-ring}s. CANS - work-related complaints of the arm, neck or shoulder cap @ keycap carpal tunnel - The passageway in the wrist where nerves and tendons pass through from your lower arm to your hand (wiki). See also: {carpal tunnel syndrome}. carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) - A health condition when the medial nerve is trapped or compressed in the {carpal tunnel}. E.g. because of {wrist extension}, {ulnar deviation} or {forearm pronation}. cartridge - A removable component as seen on e.g. Giga40 (source). case - The frame of a keyboard, generally made of plastic, metal or wood. Not every keyboard has a conventional case (sandwich case or caseless). Caterina - A {bootloader} for e.g. the {Pro Micro}. {QMK Toolbox} or {AVRDude} use this to {flash} the keyboard. See also: {Pololu A-star}. center hole @ stem hole center mast - Part of the {bottom housing} where the {center pole} sits in a {switch} and guides the {stem}'s movement. center pole - Part of the {stem}, keeping it centered. centi-Newton - A measure of force (with a magnitude similar to {gram-force}), used to characterize switch weight. charlieplexing - A technique for driving a multiplexed display with relatively few {pin}s on a {microcontroller}. E.g. to drive an array of {LED}s. chattering - Multiple characters registering in a single keypress. Related to bounce and debouncing. Cherry - An originally German {keyswitch} and keyboard manufacturer. Cherry MX - A family of compatible {switch}es with the distinctive "+"-shaped {stem} originally manufactured by {Cherry}. Cherry profile - A {sculpted}, {cylindrical}, relatively low {keycap profile} by {Cherry}. E.g. {GMK} keycaps come in this profile. chicklet - A keyboard with small, flat rectangular rubber or plastic keys. An evolution of the {membrane} keyboard (wiki). chip @ integrated circuit Choc @ Kailh Choc chord - A key combination pressed simultaneously. See: {stenography}. chording - Pressing multiple keys simultaneously to achieve higher typing speeds. See: {stenography}. CircuitPython - An {open source} version of MicroPython for {microcontroller}s (git). See also {KMK} firmware. classic staggering @ horizontal staggering clean time - The time required by the {debounce algorithm} for a signal to settle before triggering a keypress. click bar - A mechanism to produce the sound of a {clicky} {keyswitch}. click jacket - A mechanism to produce the sound of a {clicky} {keyswitch}. E.g. in a Cherry {blue}. clicky @ clicky switch clicky switch - A {tactile} {switch type} with auditory feedback (click). clip mod - A {mod} clipping the parts the {stabilizer} insert ({stem}) to reduce wobble. clipping @ clip mod cloud of boobs - A reference to the sensitivity of {Cherry} {red} {switch}es, light {linear} switches in general and a typing style. Coined in 2013, in the early years of {r/mk} (source). cN @ centi-Newton CO2 laser - For {laser cutting} non-metal materials, e.g. {acrylic}. cold joint - A {soldering} failure. Colemak - A popular {alternative layout} (more). Colemak-DH - A popular modification of the {Colemak} layout (more). columnar staggering - The arrangement of keys in vertically shifted columns (contrary to the classic {horizontal staggering}). compile - To turn the human-readable source code into binary code. See: {build automation} compiled - Turned into compact, computer-readable binary format. complex spring - A hybrid {spring} starting out as a {linear spring} but transitioning to a {progressive string} part way through the keypress. component @ electronic component Compose - Not a {modifier} but a {dead key}. connected coils - A parameter of a {spring}. connector type - See: {DIN}, {PS/2}, {USB micro}, {USB C}. contra-lateral - Keying opposing letters of the two hands, e.g. S-L, D-K, F-J on a standard {QWERTY} {layout}. controller - An ambiguous reference to a {microcontroller} or {development board}. converted - A restored vintage keyboard usable with today's operating systems, often with a new {controller} but keeping the {matrix}. converting - Turning a vintage keyboard into a USB-one, often with a new {controller} but keeping the {matrix}. copper - The material of {PCB} {trace}s or some keyboard {plate}s. copper plane - The layer of copper in the sandwich material of a {PCB}. copper weight - {PCB}s are manufactured in different layer thicknesses. Copper weight is the term used to describe this thickness. It's measured in ounces. corpora @ corpus corpus (pl. corpora) - A bunch of text for language statistics and {logical layout optimization}. Costar stabilizer - A {stabilizer} type that hooks into the {keycap} and clips into the stabilizer in contrast to the more common Cherry style one. cream - A {linear} {switch} made entirely from {POM} (both the {stem} and {housing}). The first one of this kind. Announced by Novelkeys in August 2018, manufactured by {Kailh}. Known from its fishy smell (source). cross-mount - The traditional {MX compatible} {mount}. CTD @ Cumulative Trauma Disorder CTS - See: {carpal tunnel syndrome} or {cubital tunnel syndrome} cubic - A {sculpted} {cylindrical} {keycap profile} by {Tai-Hao}. cubital tunnel - The passage at your elbow the ulnar nerve is passing through. See: {cubital tunnel syndrome} cubital tunnel syndrome (CTS) - A condition that causes pain throughout the hand due to pressure on the ulnar nerve when the elbow is bent. cumulative trauma disorder - One of the many keyboard related health issues. cutout - The various shapes of rectangles in a plate you put the switches in. The most basic being the 14x14mm square cutout. cylindrical (keycap) - A {keycap} profile with a cylindrical well on the top (contrary to a {spherical} one). D-sub - An electrical connector with D-shaped metal shield. E.g. the 9-pin one for serial connection. D-sub 9 - An electrical connector for serial communication with D-shaped metal shield and 9 pins. Also known as {DE-09}. D-subminiature @ D-sub Dactyl - A characteristic {split} keyboard with 3D plate and {keywell} by Matt Adareth (git). dampening @ sound dampening data input (Din) - A wire of e.g. a {LED} strip to provide data to the driver chips. data sheet - A short documentation of an electric component, e.g. controller, rotary encoder, diode. Datahand - A weird input device limiting finger motion. Created in the 1990s by Dale Retter. DE-09 @ D-sub 9 DE-9 @ D-sub 9 debounce - The {firmware}'s method to handle the {bounce} of {switch}es when actuating. debounce algorithm - The algorithm of the {firmware} deciding when a signal should be registered as a keypress or handled as noise. debounce delay - A parameter of the {debounce algorithm} waiting for state changes (resulting in a small {lag}). DEC - Digital Equipment Company was a manufacturer of computers and inventor of the arrow cluster seen on the {standard keyboard} ({inverted T}). deep dish - One way to indicate homing keys, especially on SA keycaps (as opposed to homing dots/dashes). defer - A debounce method in QMK. PhysicalDebounce(3-5ms) + DEBOUNCE(5ms). Noise lasting less than 5ms will not trigger keypresses. dent - Feature of a {rotary encoder} making it tactile. dented - A tactile {rotary encoder}. In contrast to a linear encoder. design rule check - One of the last steps of {PCB} design. Running this check tells you if any components overlap or if {trace}s are routed too close together. Items that fail the design rule check are listed in the "DRC Errors" folder. deskthority - A community and site dedicated to mostly vintage keyboards, restoration and converting. development board - A {microcontroller} on a piece of {PCB}, surrounded by the necessary electrical components. E.g. {Pro Micro}, {Elite C}, {Proton C}. desoldering - Removing a soldered component from the {PCB} or {circuit}. desoldering pump - A tool to suck the melted solder material while {desoldering}. detachable connector - A connector designed to be, well, detachable. Colloquially referred to as {aviator connector}. detent - An attribute of {rotary encoder}s. No detents: smooth, detents: tactile. DFU mode - Device Firmware Update or {bootloader mode}. dielectric grease - A type of {lube}, usually applied on the metal-plastic (wire) contacts of {stabilizer}s. DIN - The German institute of standards, and an old, thick, pre-USB {connector type}, or the abbreviation/caption for {data input}. diode - The one-way valve in electronics. Conducting electricity in one direction only. diode direction - The direction {diode}s face, usually marked by a black ring. In the {matrix}: row to column or column to row direction. DIP switch - A type of switch array (Dual In-line Package), generally used for basic hardware configuration (wiki, doc). DIY - Do It Yourself. A handmade keyboard or {kit} that needs {soldering} or manual assembly (as opposed to a pre-made or {assembled} one). dogbone - A cutout technique to get corners with a round router/cutting tool. (Hole on a corner.) dome - Bumps on the {membrane} of a {rubberdome} keyboard or the similar separate part of e.g. a {Topre} or {prototopre} {switch}. double-shot - Keycaps molded with two different colors. Requires a mold for the external shape and another one for each legend, which makes this technique expensive. DRC @ design rule check DSA - An {uniform}, {spherical}, {sculpted} {keycap profile}. DSK - The {Dvorak} Simplified Keyboard. dummy stem - An old solution to stabilize larger than {2u} keys (before {stabilizer}s). duplex matrix - A creative arrangement of keys in the {matrix} to spare on {pins} of the {controller}. Connecting {switch}es of two columns in a U-shape. Durock - A {switch} manufacturer. dustproof mount - The partially closed {cross-mount} or the box-style {mount} of some {Kailh} {switches}. Dvorak - An extensively researched {alternative layout} designed by {Dvorak, August}. Dvorak, August (1894-1975) - Inventor and advocate of the {Dvorak} {alternative layout} (wiki). Dvorak Simplified Keyboard - The original name of the keyboards/typewriters with the {Dvorak} layout. DXF - A vector file format for e.g. {plate}s, used for {laser cutting}. Similar to {SVG}. See: {plate generator}, {plate builder), {KLE}. dye-sub @ dye-sublimated dye-sublimated - A {legend} printing method. The ink is heat-and-vacuum printed inside the plastic. The pigment becomes part of the keycap. Usually darker legend on lighter {keycap}. dynamic macro - A {macro} recoded on the keyboard, which will be lost when the keyboard is unplugged. Eager - A {debounce} method: 0ms input lag from contact point, then blocks changes for DEBOUNCE(5ms). Noise is reported as a keypress. EC11 - A popular {rotary encoder} type/dimension. Eclipse - A popular {IDE} for developing in C. EEPROM - Permanent storage of the {microcontroller}. E.g., used to set {handedness} for {split} keyboards (doc). electronic component - The puzzle pieces of a circuitry, e.g. switch, resistor, capacitor, diode. Elite C - A type of {Pro Micro} clone {development board} with {USB Type C} connector. encoder @ rotary encoder endgame - The mythical ultimate setup. ePBT - A {keycap} manufacturer. Used to dye-sub {Gateron} {PBT} caps but they use their own caps now. ergo - {ergonomic} keyboard ergo kit - A {keyset}'s {kit} covering {ergonomic} layouts, e.g. including symmetric {modifier}s and {thumb key}s for an {ErgoDox}. ErgoDox - An early {ergonomic} {split} keyboard design with {thumb cluster}. ergonomic - Designed according to the rules of {ergonomics}: with health and productivity in mind. ergonomics - The applied science of designing tools with health and productivity in mind. evolutional model - A mathematical model for {logical layout optimization}. See: {population size}, {generation}, {evaluation algorithm} evaluation algorithm - The algorithm which evaluates layouts and generates a score in {evolutional model}s and {logical layout optimization}. exposed switches - A {low profile} {case} design where {switch} {housing}s are exposed. extension kit - A {kit} of a {keyset} to cover more exotic layouts like {split}s and {40%}s. See: {base kit}. extras - After a successful {GB}, an additional number of the product can be manufactured (above the final pre-order number) to account for later {QC} issues or if the vendor wants to sell them from stock. F-key @ function key F-row - The row of the {function key}s. F10 - A {uniform} flat (neither {cylindrical} nor {spherical}) {keycap profile}. faceplate - The top plate usually holding (or covering) the {switch}es. fibre laser - For the {laser cutting} of metal {plates}. film - The thin layer of adhesive film cut to the shape of a switch housing to alleviate housing wobble and/or change sound. filming - The method to counter housing wobble by putting a thin layer of adhesive film between the top and bottom housing. firmware - The software running on the keyboard when powered up, e.g. {QMK}, {TMK}, {ZMK}, {PRK}. fixed-angle - A one-piece {split} keyboard where the halves' {slant angle}/{opening angle} is fixed. flash @ flashing flashing - The process of writing the {firmware} on the {microcontroller} (in {bootloader mode}). flex cut - Additional cuts in the {plate} (beside {switch} {cutouts}) for added flexibility. flipping - Buying a (limited) product and selling it for profit. floating PCB - A {mounting style} where the {PCB} has no bottom support and is held in place only by ({plate mounted}) {switch}es. Fn - Not really a {modifier} but a hardware key that's not directly interfaceable by the {OS}. The OS can't detect whether Fn is pressed or not. foam - A {dampening} material. foam and foil - An old {switch} type by e.g. Alphameric and Keytronic. With a foil disk and conductive foil at the {stem} end pushing onto the {PCB} during a keypress. foaming - Dampening the {case} with {foam} to mitigate reverb and hollow sound. force curve - A graph representing {switch weight}/force as a function of {travel distance}. forearm pronation - The angle or range of lateral inclination of the forearm with your palm facing the desk (contrary to {forearm supination}). forearm supination - The angle or range of lateral inclination of the forearm with your palm facing upwards (contrary to {forearm pronation}). form factor - A specific type or group of {physical layout}s, often expressed in a percentage relative to the {fullsize} keyboard (100%) (uni). FR4 - The fibreglass material of {PCB}s, a glass-reinforced epoxy laminate material, used as a {plate} material too. "FR" stands for "flame retardant" (wiki). frankenswitch - A {switch} put together from parts of different switch models, mixing their characteristics. front plate - The front face of the {stem}. frosted - Used mostly for opaque acrylic. fullsize - The classic keyboard {form factor} with {F-key}s, numpad, navigation and arrow cluster. function key - The F1-F12 keys in the top row of the {standard keyboard}. Up to F24 on some vintage keyboards. function layer @ layer G20 - An {uniform}, flat top {keycap} profile from {SP} suggested for regular keyboards used as {steno machine}s. gable - tenting (in earlier research papers) gasket - The material (e.g. neoprene, poron) used in a {gasket mount} {case}. gasket mount - A {mounting style} using gasket material between the {plate} and keyboard case on both top and bottom housing, resulting in a more cushioned feel compared to the {sandwich mount} design. Gateron - A {keyswitch} (and {keycap}) brand and manufacturer. Gateron Yellow - An all-time classic {linear} {switch} with a debut sometime in 2014. GB @ group buy GB runner - The organizer of a {group buy}. geekhack - A forum style community site at The starting point of many {IC}s and {GB}s. generation - A cycle of an {evolutional model}. New layouts are generated ({population size}}, evaluated ({evaluation algorithm}) and ordered to kill the poor ones. genetic model - A mathematical model for algorithmical optimization for the logical layer. Gerber files - A set of files containing the necessary info to manufacture a {PCB}. gf @ gram-force GH @ geekhack ghetto browns - Modded {blue}s without the clicky sound (details). ghetto red - black {stem} + brown {spring} ghetto white - brown {stem} + black {spring} ghosting - Registering of a phantom keypress (due to inadequate matrix or firmware design). The term is often confused with {jamming}. GIO pin - General Input-Output Pin (of a microcontroller). git - A command line versioning software. GitHub - An online place to store and track {git} projects, e.g. {QMK}. giveaway - A promotional tool used to improve awareness of a brand, improve the company's image or drive sales. GMK - A German {keycap} manufacturer known for its {Cherry profile} {keyset}s. GND - Ground. GPIO pin - General Purpose Input-Output pin. Their number defines the number of keys in a keyboard {matrix} and as such is one of the most important parameters of a {microcontroller}/{development board}. GPL grease - General Purpose Lubricant. A form of synthetic industrial lubricant (also for lubing keyswitches), e.g. Krytox. grab bag - A random mix of keycaps often with quality issues and sold by the weight. gram-force (gF) - A common unit of keyswitch weight, similar to {cN} (centi-Newton). grave escape - A {firmware} feature to share Escape and "`" plus its shifted "~" on the same key (doc). group buy - A form of pre-financing or fundraising where buyers pay for a product prior to manufacturing. GUI - Graphical User Interface. E.g. {QMK Configurator} for {QMK}, {AVRDUDESS} for {AVRDude}. GUI key - The Win/Command {modifier} depending on the system. GX12 - A cheap type of {detachable connector}s with a 15mm diameter at its thickest point. 5mm for the cable may be too thin and squeeze it or the {heat shrink}/{sleeving}. GX16 - A cheap type of {detachable connector}s. This one may be too bulky (18.5mm max diameter) and may leave a gap as the cable leaves the connector. half plate - A {plate} with removed {alpha} cluster for reduced stiffness. Only for {PCB mounted} {switch}es. Hall effect - A contactless technology where a magnet passes by a sensor that registers the keypress based on the proximity. 30 billion keypress lifetime. handedness - A parameter of {split} keyboards. Required for the {firmware} to decide which half is which (doc). handwired - A keyboard without a {PCB}, soldered and wired up manually. handwiring - The method to wire up a keyboard without the need of a {PCB}. Cheap but tedious. Used for prototyping or for 3D boards like a {Maltron} or {Dactyl}. hangul - The Korean alphabet. A separate {kit} in some {keyset} {GB}s. hard reset - Resetting the {controller}/{development board} by {shorting} the {RST} and {GND} {pins} (contrary to {soft reset}). Hansen Writing Ball - The first commercially produced typewriter (1870) invented by Rasmus Malling-Hansen in Copenhagen (wiki). Overtaken in the market by the {Sholes and Glidden typewriter}. heatshrink - A tube contracting on heat. It comes in several diameters to cover and seal otherwise exposed parts of e.g. a custom cable. heavy switch - A {keyswitch} with a {weight} on the more heavy side of the spectrum. hex - The file extension of the compiled firmware in {hex file} format. hex file - The compiled {firmware} in binary format (ready for {flashing}). Sometimes the file extension is {bin}. HHKB layout - A keyboard and {physical layout} without the corner keys on the {bottom row}. Designed by {Wada, Eiiti} in 1996 (interview). HID - Human Interface Device. An USB technology to support a low latency, low power link to devices like a mouse or keyboard. HID support - The feature of recognizing a keyboard as an actual keyboard device without the need of extra circuitry. That's what made the Atmega32u4 a popular choice for keyboard builders. hiragana - One 'alphabet' (phonetic lettering system) of the Japanese language. The more curvy one. Popular on {keyset}s. See also: {katakana}, {kana}. hold - Pressing and holding a key, e.g a {modifier}. In contrast to a {tap}. Holy Panda - A legendary {tactile} {frankenswitch} discovered by Quakemz. A Halo True or Halo Clear {stem} put into an Invyr {housing}. See: {pandaverse} Holy Trash Panda - A Trash Panda {switch} with the stock {stem} replaced by a Halo True/Clear stem. home box - A specific area of the {keymap} for keyboard layout evaluation/optimization. (See also: {home row}) home positions - The keys your fingers rest on: ASDF - JKL; on a standard English {QWERTY}. The positions of the index fingers (F/J) are indicated by homing dots, dashes or deep dish. home row - The middle row of the keyboard where your fingers rest. homing - Proper positioning or repositioning of your hand on the keyboard. E.g. index fingers on F/J on a {standard keyboard}. homing bar - The bar-shaped mark on the {homing keys} F/J. homing bump - The mark on the {homing keys} F/J. homing dash - The mark on the {homing keys} F/J. homing dot - The dot-shaped mark on the {homing keys} F/J. homing edge - The {homing} solution of {MBT} {keycap}s. homing keys - Keys with a marking (e.g. {homing bump}, {homing dash} or {deep dish}) to help repositioning your index fingers. Usually F and J on a {standard keyboard}. horizontal staggering - The classic {staggering}, a legacy of the mechanical typewriters. host - In relation with your keyboard the host is usually your computer. See also: {USB host}. hotswap - Removable/replaceable (especially {switch}es, but e.g. also {LED}s). hotswap socket - A socket (soldered on the PCB) to allow solderless replacement of keyswitches. hotswap PCB - A PCB with onboard hotswap sockets. housing - The plastic outer shell of a keyswitch. housing pole - The tiny vertical pole-shaped part of the {bottom housing} the {spring} is sitting on. housing wobble - Movement of the upper {housing}. May be aggravated by the frequent opening of the switch. Mitigated by {filming}. hunt-and-peck - An inefficient method of typing in which one looks at the keyboard and types usually only with the index fingers (contrary to {touch typing}). hurdle - Row jumps (e.g. skipping the {home row}) while typing as referred to by August {Dvorak} in his works. E.g. there are 6 hurdles/row jumps while writing the word 'minimum' on a standard QWERTY layout. hydrogen peroxide - A chemical used to {retrobright} plastic parts. Hyper - A {modifier} introduced on the {space-cadet} keyboard. Emulated by the combination of left Control, Shift, Alt and {GUI key} in {QMK} and other {firmware}s. hysteresis - The gap between the {actuation point} and {reset point}. Most switch reset points are higher than the actuation point, so a key has to be released almost fully in order to reset for the next press, which can make double-tapping and rapid same-key typing difficult. I/O pin - The general input/output pins of a microcontroller to read or send voltage/electric signals. I2C - A way to chain electric components, e.g. {LED}s or halves of a {split} keyboard. IBM Model M - A legendary vintage keyboard model with a distinctive click and feel. IC - Abbreviation for {interest check} or {integrated circuit}. IDE - Integrated Development Environment, e.g. Arduino IDE. input latency - The delay between actuation and registration of a keypress by the microcontroller/OS. integrated circuit - A bunch of electronic {circuit}s with a tiny {footprint}. See: {microcontroller}, {AVR}, {Pro Micro}. (wiki) integrated plate - The {plate} is part of the (usually top) {case}. Associated with poor acoustics, switch {wobble} and hard {bottom out}. interest check - A step before the group buy or fund raising phase. The community is polled regarding an upcoming product. intuitive optimization - Arranging the keys based on common sense. This is inefficient or even counterproductive compared to a more complex {evaluation algorithm} or {model}, since too many factors are involved to keep them all in mind to evaluate. invader - A {bottom row} with a gap between Ctrl and Alt. inverted T - The common arrangement of the arrows on a {standard keyboard}, invented at DEC. intensity value - A value to characterize the light emission of an {LED}. Expressed in {millicandella} [mcd]. IO expander - An {IC} providing a simple solution when more {GPIO}s are needed. Communicating through serial or {I2C} they are used e.g. for the {slave} half of a {split} (instead of another {controller}). IP30 - Non-waterproof. The protection class provided by the bare LED strip agains water (2.13mm thickness). IP56 - Dust-proof, based on the standard rating the protection provided by casings against dust and water (e.g. {Kailh} {box switch}es). IP65 - Waterproof. A protection class, e.g. the protection provided against water by an {LED strip} with silicone coating (3mm thickness). IP67 - Waterproof. A protection class, e.g. the protection provided against water by an {LED strip} in a silicone tube (3.85mm thickness). iron @ soldering iron ISO layout - A common {physical layout} used in Europe. ISP - In-system programming. A method to program an {AVR} chip using external hardware and the {JTAG pin}s. Iv @ intensity value jack - The female connector for a {TRRS} cable, usually to connect separate {split} keyboards. jade @ Kailh Box Jade jailhouse mod - Locking down the click jacket on a blue switch so that it can't move. This eliminates the click and halves the {travel distance} at the {actuation point}. jamming - A pressed key not registering due to inadequate {matrix} or {firmware} design. Also, the intentional suppression of a keypress (to prevent {ghosting}). JLPCB - A popular {PCB} manufacturer for ordering keyboard PCBs. JSpacer - A replacement for the wire when {jailhouse mod}ding. JTAG pin - An industry standard interface for verifying designs and testing {PCB}s after manufacture. JTK - A {keycap} manufacturer. JWK - A {switch} manufacturer. Kailh - A Chinese switch manufacturer. Kailh Box Jade - A very loud and {tactile} {switch} with light green (jade) stem. Kailh Choc - A type of {low profile} {switch}es and {keycap}s by {Kailh}. Kailh Cream @ {Novelkeys Cream} kana - Japanese writing systems and a special key with {LED indicator} to switch between them. See: {hiragana}, {katakana}. KAT - A {sculpted}, {spherical} {keycap} profile. katakana - One 'alphabet' (phonetic lettering system) of the Japanese language. The more blocky, cleaner one. Popular on {keyset}s. See also: {hiragana}, {kana}. KB2040 - A {development board} by Adafruit with {Pro Micro} footprint featuring the {RP2040} chip. Also known as {Keeboar}. KATE - A new {doubleshot}, {sculpted}, {cylindrical} {keycap profile} by RAMA. Not available yet. (source) keeb - Keyboard. Keeboard - A {development board} by Adafruit with {Pro Micro} footprint featuring the {RP2040} chip. Also known as {KB2040}. kerf - The material burned away by the machine ({laser cutting}). Usually, 0.15-0.2 mm. To account for the kerf, the paths have to be offset by the amount of the kerf. key bounce - The erratic behaviour of a switch at actuation, bouncing between on and off states many times before settling on ON. Handled by the {firmware}'s {debounce algorithm}. key rollover - The maximal number of keys pressed at the same time and still registered by the {microcontroller}/keyboard. key unit - A single-width key (e.g. an {alpha}) used as a measure of key size. Keyboard Layout Editor - An online tool to design or visualize keyboard layouts. Its {raw data} serves as input for many other tools, e.g. the {plate builder}. keyboard matrix - The gridlike arrangement of keyswitches into rows and columns to handle more switches than {I/O pin}s on the {controller}. keycap - The plastic part on top of the {switch} you actually touch. Comes in different {profile}s. keycap mount @ mount keycap profile - The shape and height of the {keycap}. Can be classified into {uniform} and {sculpted}, {spherical} and {cylindrical}, or by keycap height ({low profile}). ( keycap puller - A tool to remove keycaps from the switches. keycap sprue - In {keycap} casting, the passage through which the molten material is introduced into the {mold}. Also, the associated hole or excess plastic which solidifies in this passage. keycode - Used ambiguously. E.g. the lower 8 bits of the action code, or generally the identifier of a key used in {keymap}s by the {firmware}. E.g. in {QMK} it's usually the {scan code} preceded by 'KC_'. keymap - The (code describing the) arrangement of characters/functions in a {logical layer}, e.g. an array of layers in one of {QMK}'s C files. keyset - A {keycap} design with specific {profile} and colorway available for purchase. Often broken down into {kit}s. keyswitch - The individual switches residing under the {keycap}s of a {mechanical keyboard}. They come in different types, colors and weights. keytopper - Keys you can stick on your keyboard to mimic a {steno machine}. keywell - A 3D, sculpted plate introduced by {Maltron} and used on keyboards like {Kinesis} and {Dactyl}. kit - A subset of a {keyset} or a set of parts necessary to build a keyboard, sold together (usually, without switches and {cap}s). kit compatibility - A {keyset}'s coverage of keyboard {layout}s. KLE @ Keyboard Layout Editor KLE raw data - A JSON string generated by {KLE} and used by many tools as input. KMK - A {firmware} using {CircuitPyton}. A framework to easily write portable {makefile}s and drag&drop firmware update instead of the arduous workflow and {flashing} with {QMK}. Knight keyboard - Used with the MIT-AI lab's bitmapped display system, designed by Tom Knight (~1970) (wiki). Predecessor of the {Symbolics space-cadet} keyboard. KPS - Keypress Per Second. Not really a {typing speed} measure, rather one for typesetting machines. KPH - Keypress Per Hour. See: {WPM} KPM - Keypress Per Minute. See: {WPM} Krytox - A family of lube products. Krytox 204g0 - A {lube} generally used for switches, thinner than {Krytox 205g0}. Krytox 205g0 - A {lube} generally used for switches, thicker than {Krytox 204g0}. language layout @ logical layout layer - A set of characters/functions of the {logical layout} accessed by {modifier}s. layout - The physical or logical arrangement of the keys of a keyboard. layout optimization - The intuitive or algorithmic process to effectively arrange the keys/functions of a keyboard. laser @ laser cutting laser cutting - The way to manufacture plates or layered cases, but also involved in {PCB} manufacturing. Cutting metal requires {fibre laser}, but other materials ({acrylic}) can be cut with cheaper {CO2 laser}. laser etching - A method to print {legend}s on a {keycap}. Also, legends can be etched into a fully dye-subbed keycap to let light shine through ({backlit keycap}s). latency - The delay between actuation and registration of the keypress (by the {microcontroller}/OS). lateral inclination @ tilting Leader key - A feature and special {modifier} key in {QMK} to allow a sequence of keypresses to be handled as a simultaneously pressed key combination (wiki). leaf @ metal leaf LED - Light-Emitting Diode. A {diode} producing light. Used for {LED indicator}s, {underglow}, per-key lighting. LED indicator - {LED}s defined in the {HID} specification to indicate layer status: Num Lock, Caps Lock, Scroll Lock, Compose, {Kana}. See also: {lighting layer} LED slot - The cutout in the {upper housing} for the per-key {LED}. leg - The tiny pieces/pins on the {upper housing} used to attach it to the {bottom housing}. 4 pins or {winglatch} style. Or the little slanted legs of the {front plate} of the {stem} which interacts with the {leaf}. legend - The writing on the {keycap}. LEMO - A more expensive type of {detachable connector} used in custom cables. letter frequency - A statistical parameter of a text or language representing the relative occurrence of letters. letter layout @ logical layout levitator - A magnet mechanism in a {Hall effect} {switch} to ensure {springless} {keycap} depress. lifted trace - A common problem of {hotswap} {PCB}s, where pushing of the {switch} lifts or breaks the conductive copper path. You can fix it by soldering or with a wire bridge. light switch - A {switch} with a {switch weight} in the lower range. lighting layer - A {firmware} feature to indicate layer status by {underglow} as normally {LED indicator}s do (doc). linear - See: {linear switch} or {linear spring} linear spring - A {spring} providing a linearly increasing force throughout the keypress. linear switch - A {switch type} without any tactility or intentionally produced sound. Preferred by gamers. logical layout - The arrangement of letters/characters/functions on the physical keys. See: {alternative layouts} logical layout design @ logical layout optimization logical layout optimization - Researching the optimal arrangement of the keys by {intuitive optimization} or by mathematical models. See: {evolutional model} low pro @ low profile low profile - A {keycap}, {switch} or keyboard with a relatively low height. Generally, a low profile may help to mitigate {wrist extension}. lube - A lubricant applied on {switche}s ({stem}s, {spring}s) and {stabilizer}s. lubing - The action of lubricating the {switch} {stem}s, {spring}s or {stabilizer}s. M2 - A screw and spacer size with a thread diameter of 2 mm. M3 - A screw and spacer size with a thread diameter of 3 mm. macro - A {firmware} feature allowing to send multiple keystrokes when pressing a key (to type common phrases, repetitive game movements, code fragments, etc.). macropad - A tiny board with a few {switch}es and/or {rotary encoder}s. Make (software) - A {build automation} tool that automatically builds executable programs from {source code} by reading files called {makefile}s which specify how to derive the target program. makefile - A file (by default named "Makefile") containing a set of directives used by a {make} {build automation} tool to generate a target/goal. Malt, Lillian - Inventor of the {Maltron} {ergonomic} keyboard and its custom {logical layout} ({Maltron layout}). Maltron - A family of {ergonomic} keyboards designed by {Malt, Lillian} (1977) and a company by the same name. Maltron layout - An {alternative layout} designed by {Malt, Lillian} in 1977, with the letters ANISF and DTHOR on the {home row} (wiki). master - The separate {split} half with direct USB connection to the PC (contrary to the {slave}). Matias Alps - A recreation of the {Alps} {keyswitch} available here. matrix - See {keyboard matrix} or {matrix layout}. matrix layout - An old (well, around mid 2010s) expression for {ortholinear}. MBK - A {uniform}, {low profile} {keycap} designed by u/mburger89 and manufactured by u/fk-caps. mcd @ millicandella MCU @ microcontroller MDA - A {sculpted}, {spherical} {keycap} profile. MDPC-X - A German manufacturer of high quality and relatively expensive cable {sleeving}. mech @ mechanical keyboard mech meetup @ meetup mechanical keyboard - Generally, a keyboard with a {keyswitch} under each {keycap} (in contrast to a {rubberdome}, {membrane} keyboard). meetup - An event organized by and for keyboard enthusiasts. A good way to try out boards, {cap}s, {switch}es and make friends. membrane @ membrane keyboard membrane keyboard - A cheap keyboard type without individual {keyswitch}es. Meta - A {modifier} on some vintage keyboards, e.g. the {Symbolics space-cadet}. Equivalent to Alt on later keyboards. Equivalent to the {GUI key} (Win/Command) in {QMK}. metal leaf - The part of a {switch} sitting in the {bottom housing} and closing the electric {circuit} when the {stem} gets pushed into it. microchip @ integrated circuit microcontroller - A tiny self-contained computer on a chip. An {integrated circuit} with processor, memory, storage etc. running the {firmware}, handling keypresses and communicating with the {OS}. mid-mount - Something mounted in the middle (in contrast to on top) of the {PCB}. E.g. an USB connector. mil - A measurement that equals 1/1000th of an inch, i.e. 0.001 inch or 0.0254 mm. Often used in {PCB} design. Mill-Max @ Mill-Max socket Mill-Max socket - A {socket} type, especially for {socketing} {switches}. Common models: {0305}, {0705} and {0279}. millicandella - The measure of intensity value ({Iv}) of an {LED}. Abbreviated as {mcd}. minimum order quantity (MOQ) - The quantity of orders a {group buy} has to meet or the manufacturer prescribes for the product to go into production. Miryoku - An {ergonomic} {logical layout} for various {physical layouts} maintained in emacs org-mode tables and converted to {QMK} {keymap} data structures (git). mod - Modification like {lubing}, {filming}, {spring swap}ping etc. Mod-DH @ Colemak-DH mod-tap - A key MT(mod, kc) acting like a {modifier} when held and a regular key when tapped. model @ optimization model model M @ IBM model M modifier @ modifier key modifier key - A key to switch between {logical layer}s i.e. set of characters or functions. On a {standard keyboard} switches like Shift, Ctrl, Alt. However, with {QMK} you can turn any key into a modifier. mold - In {double-shot} {keycap} manufacturing the (many) CNC milled metal parts the plastic is injected into. Or a similar device for resin casting. monoblock - A non-separate, usually {fixed-angle} {split} keyboard. E.g. the {Atreus}. monoblock split - A non-separate, usually fixed-angle {split} keyboard. mount - The top part of the {stem} protruding out of the {upper housing}'s {center hole} where the {keycap} is mounted. E.g. the '+'-shaped part of an {MX compatible} stem. mounting @ mounting style mounting post - The part of the {case} for screws. See: {tray mount} {mounting style}. mounting style - The way of securing a {PCB} or {plate} in the {case}. E.g. {gasket mount}. mousekey - Keys/functions that let you control your mouse (cursor movement and clicks) by keypresses. MOQ @ minimum order quantity MSD - musculoskeletal disorders MSD-UE - musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities MSYS2 - A {build environment} for Windows. Necessary to run {QMK} on Windows. Available at: MT3 - A {sculpted}, {spherical} {PBT} {keycap} profile by matt3o. Similar to {SA}, but lower. muscle memory - Repetitive movement creates a long-term memory for that motoric task, allowing it to be performed without conscious effort. See: {touch typing}. (wiki) MX - A family of {keyswitch}es originally manufactured by {Cherry}. MX-compatible - A {keycap} fitting on the "+" shaped {MX stem} of a {switch} (but not on {Alps}, {Topre} or some {low profile} switches). MX stem - The characteristic "+"-shaped {stem} of the {MX switch}es. MX switch - Original MX switches by Cherry, as well as MX-compatible switches by other manufacturers. N-key rollover - The ability of a keyboard to correctly report any number of simultaneous keypresses. Because of the {USB standard} this is restricted to 6 keys in many keyboards, but there are ways to boost this. nameplate - The area for branding on the {upper housing} of a {switch}. NC @ normally closed negative slope - When the top plane of the keyboard is (the {keycap}s) are facing away from you. In general, this is more {ergonomic} than a {positive slope} by mitigating {wrist extension}. Neo - A German {alternative layout}. neoprene - A material used for {sound dampening} and as {gasket} material. new old stock - An unused vintage keyboard. Old but like new. NRF52 - A family of {microcontroller}s for wireless keyboards. NRF52840 - A {microcontroller} with Bluetooth support for wireless keyboards. nice!nano - A {development board} to replace {Pro Micro} for wireless projects. NKRO @ N-key rollover NO @ normally open NorDe - An {extension kit} of a {keyset} with accented letters to support German and Nordic languages. normally closed - A {switch} with ON as the default state (closed {circuit}). A keypress breaks the circuit. Mostly for safety switches. normally open - A {switch} with OFF as the default state (broken {circuit}). Most push-buttons and keyswitches. A keypress closes the circuit. non-standard bottom row - Modifiers with various widths (contrary to the uniform {1.25u} {modifier}s of a standard {bottom row}). north-facing - E.g. a {switch} with the {LED slot} in the back. NOS @ new old stock Novelkeys Cream @ cream novelty - A {keycap} with a symbol/artwork often related to a {keyset} theme (rather than a letter or usual symbol). NP - A {uniform} {keycap profile}, similar to {XDA}. Also known as PG. numpad - The area with the numbers and arithmetic symbols on the right of a {standard keyboard} or as a separate board. O-ring - A silicone ring affecting sound ({sound dampening}), feel and used to shorten key {travel distance}. OCD @ Occupational Cervicobrachial Disorder Occupational Cervicobrachial Disorder - A group of keyboard related health issues affecting the neck and arm. OEM - A {sculpted}, {cylindrical} {keycap} profile. Often the default profile of stock keyboards. OLED - Organic {LED}. OLED display - A device to display {layer} and branding info, logos, animations. Usually communicating over {I2C} (doc). OLED module - An {OLED display} with all the necessary electronic components on a tiny {PCB}, ready to wire up. one shot modifier - This {firmware} feature activates a {modifier} until the next keypress only. E.g. to prevent ill-timed Shift usage and to capitalize the next letter only. one shot layer - A {firmware} feature activating a {layer} temporarily for the next keypress. open source - Researchable, reproducible and tweakable because of the published source code or files. E.g. a {PCB}, {plate}, {case} design. opening angle - 2 x {slant angle} in {split} keyboards. Alternative name: {split angle}. operating force - The force measured at the {operating point}/{actuation point}. operating point - The {travel distance} at the operation/actuation event. optical switch - A {keyswitch} represented by very low or no input lag/{latency}. optimization @ layout optimization optimization model - Mathematical models to optimize the most effective arrangement of keys on a keyboard. Oryx - A web based {QMK} configurator for some keyboard models by ZSA Technology Labs. ortho @ ortholinear ortholinear - The arrangement of keys into a regular grid, without horizontal or columnar {staggering}. See: {Planck}, {Preonic} OS - Operating System OSA - A {sculpted} {spherical} {doubleshot} {PBT} {keycap profile} with {homing dot}. OSL @ one shot layer OSM @ one shot modifier otaku - A {keycap} set for {touch-typer}s ("geek" in Japanese). Artistic sets or {blank}s with no indication of the actual typed characters. Outemu - A {switch} manufacturer and brand. overlubed - Excess {lube} or improper {lubing} affecting sound, feel and function of a {switch}. pad - A portion of the exposed copper/metal for soldering on a {PCB}. panda @ pandaverse pandaverse - The obscure world of {switch}es of the {Holy Panda} family as dubbed by ThereminGoat (review). pangram - A short, sometimes surreal sentence that contains all the characters in a given alphabet. paracord - A popular cable {sleeving}. parasitic osctillation - An issue also known as {ringing}, e.g with {backliting}. Can cause the transistor to dissipate excessive power and heat the device up. A low ohm resistor will solve this issue. PBT - PolyButylene Terephthalate. A durable, corrosion and UV-resistant {keycap} material. See also: {ABS}. PCB - Printed Circuit Board. PCB footprint - The standardized dimensions of electronic components. PCB mounted (switch) - A {keyswitch} with 3 plastic legs, used fixed on the {PCB} (in contrast to {plate mounted} switches). PCB mounted (stabilizer) - A {stabilizer} attached to the keyboard {PCB} as opposed to {plate mounted} {stab}s. Can be clamped onto the PCB or there are {screw-in} stabilizers. PCB trace - The conductive copper paths of a {PCB}. penalty table - A basic evaluation concept used for {logical layout design}. PF key - A 'program function' key, mostly on vintage boards. Predecessor of {F-key}s. PG @ NP physical layout - The physical arrangement of the keys. Similar to {form factor}. (uni) pin - Can be a reference to {controller} {I/O pin}s or the two metal contacts on the bottom of a {keyswitch}. ping @ spring ping pinout - The map of {I/O pin}s of a {microcontroller} or {development board}. pixel - Reference to an individual {LED}. PJRC - Designer and manufacturer of the {Teensy} {development boards} (web}. Planck - A 12x4 {ortholinear} keyboard (without number row). See also: {Preonic} plate - Usually the layer one puts the switches in, but there is also the {bottom plate}. Cut from different metals, {acrylic}, {FR4}, or 3D printed. plate builder - The Swillkb plate & case builder is an online tool generating {plate} and {case} {DXF} files from {KLE} {raw data}. Available at plate generator - The ai03 plate generator is an online tool generating {plate} {DXF} files from {KLE} {raw data}. Available at plate mounted (switch) - Switches intended to be used fixed onto the plate (in contrast to {PCB mounted} switches) have only the middle plastic leg on their bottom. plate mounted (stabilizer) - A {stabilizer} attached to the {plate}. plateless - A keyboard with {PCB mounted} switches, without a {plate}. Plover - A free, open source {steno} program that lets you use your keyboard as a {steno machine}. pole - The {housing pole} or the {center pole}. poll rate @ polling rate polling rate - The frequency of an {USB} device reporting its state, e.g. the keyboard {matrix}. Pololu - A family of {development board}s based on the {Atmega32U4} {microcontroller}. Pololu A-star - A family of {development boards} and a {bootloader} for {Atmega32U4} based boards like e.g. the {Pro Micro}. Based on {Caterina}, {open source} (git). Polyoxymethylene @ POM POM - Polyoxymethylene. A very smooth {switch} {housing}, {stem} and {keycap} material with relatively low melting point. population size - A parameter of an {evolutional model}. The number of concurrent {layouts} per {generation} competing for survival. poron - A polyurethane {gasket} material used in {gasket mount} {case}s. positive slope - The keyboard's top plane is facing the user (in contrast to {negative slope}, where the {legend}s are facing away from the user). prebuilt - A functional keyboard out of the box, as opposed to a {kit}, parts you need to assemble or building from scratch. pre-travel - The distance prior to the {actuation point}. Preonic - A 12x5 {ortholinear} keyboard (with number row). See also: {Planck} printed circuit board - A {PCB} allows signals and power to be routed between electronic components without wires, as opposed to {handwiring}. PRK - A keyboard {firmware} by @hasumikin with the {RP2040} as its target chip (github). Alternative to {KMK}. Pro Micro - A popular and cheap {AVR} {development board} with {Atmega32U4} {microcontroller}. profile @ keycap profile progressive spring - A {spring} progressively increasing its force as the {switch} is pressed down. pronation @ forearm pronation Proton C - A {Pro Micro} alternative with an USB-C connector. prototopre - Capacitive {foam and foil} {switch} combined with a dome (instead of a {spring}) (see {Topre} and {rubberdome}). proxy - A local vendor/distribution partner managing pre-orders and shipping the products of a {group buy}. PS/2 - A pre-USB connector type. See also: {DIN}, {USB}. pudding keycaps - A {keycap} design with differently colored top part. pull request - A request to submit code to {QMK} (or any other project on {GitHub}). pulse wave modulation - A technique used e.g. for {backlight} dimming. PWM @ pulse wave modulation QC - Quality check. QMK - Quantum Mechanical Keyboard. A popular keyboard {firmware} and its ecosystem ( QMK Configurator - An online tool to configure the {QMK} {firmware} and {flash} compatible keyboards. QMK Toolbox - A desktop tool to {flash} compatible keyboards with the {QMK} {firmware}. QWERTY - The family of standard {logical layout} (with countless national variants). QWERTZ - Multiple variations of {QWERTY} (with Z and Y swapped) used in Germany and many Central European countries. r/MechanicalKeyboards - The biggest keyboard community on reddit: link. r/MechMarket - A reddit sub for selling and buying keyboard related stuff. r/mk - r/MechanicalKeyboards r/mm - r/MechMarket R2 - Round 2 or second run/{re-run} of production or row 2 of a {keyset}/{keycap profile} (important for {sculpted} sets). R3 - Row 3. The shape of a {sculpted} profile's keys on the {home row}. See: {all-R3}. rabbit hole - A reference to the (deepness of the) keyboard hobby. raffle @ raffle sale raffle sale - A mechanism to sell limited products to people who win the right of buying by chance. rail - The features on either side of the {stem} guiding it during its movement. As well as the matching rails in the {bottom housing}. random shit - Props on a keyboard photo. rattle - The unwanted noise of the {stabilizer}, i.e. of {keycap}s larger than or equal to {2u}. raw data @ KLE raw data re-roll - A second turn of a {raffle} to distribute unpaid products. re-run - A second/next production run of a limited product. See: {group buy}. recolor - The same {switch} with differently colored {housing} or {stem}. red @ red switch red switch - A {linear} {switch}. Red was the {stem} color of light linears in the original {Cherry MX} lineup. relegendable - A {keycap} with a transparent top part to put a piece of paper with custom {legend} below it. repetitive strain disorder (RSD) - A group of keyboard related health issues. repetitive strain injury (RSI) - A group of keyboard related health issues. replacement span - The look-ahead perception of a typist. The number of characters you remember without looking at the text you are transcribing. The point at which typists relinquish further monitoring of the source text. (source). rerun @ re-run reset point - The {travel distance} where the state of a switch is reset to off (related: {hysteresis}). retrobright - Mitigating the yellowing of an old plastic part (e.g. {case} or {keycap}), usually by UV light or chemicals like {hydrogen peroxide} (more). retrobrite @ retrobright retooled - A {keycap} or {switch} cast with new {mold}s. rev - revision, e.g. Random Model Rev 3 reverse dyesub - A {dye sublimation} method: lighter {legend} on darker {keycap} achieved by dying the whole surface except the legend. RGB - An {LED} with adjustable color (hinting at the color components Red, Green, Blue). RGB lighting - A lighting feature of {QMK}. RGB matrix - A lighting feature of {QMK}. ringing @ parasitic oscillation RGBW - An {LED} with a white (W) component in addition to the {RGB} colors (for more natural white light). rollover - The term for pressing a key while a another key is already held down. Variants include {2KRO}, {6KRO}, and {NKRO}. rotary encoder - An electronic component used to set the volume, brightness, scrolling etc. row jump - While typing, skipping a row (also {hurdle}). E.g. typing MU on a standard {QWERTY} keyboard. A slow key combination {logical layout design} aims to minimize. RP2040 - A cheap and powerful {microcontroller} chip by Raspberry. Featured on {Pi Pico}, {KB2040}, etc. {development boards}. For firmware see: {KMK}, {PRK}. RSD @ repetitive strain disorder RSI @ repetitive strain injury RST - reset (marking on some {PCB}s or {development board}s) Rub out - Equivalent to Backspace on some early keyboards like the {Knight keyboard}. rubberdome - The classic, cheap keyboard without individual switches. Considered inferior to mechanical keyboards by some people, which of course is a more complex question. runner @ GB runner SA - A very high, {sculpted}, {spherical} {keycap} profile by {Signature Plastics}. sandwich (caseless) design - A {case} built from {plate}s encompassing the {PCB} or the {handwired} circuitry, without outside walls. Used mostly in {low profile} DIY keyboards. sandwich mount - A {mounting style} securing the {PCB}/{plate} between the bottom and upper {case} housing/frame. Screws go all the way through. scan code @ scancode scan rate - The frequency of updating the keyboard {matrix}. scan-rate-estimator scancode - An identifier of a keypress used by the {firmware}, {keymap}s or by the {OS}. (See USB HID Usage Tables or QMK keycodes.) schematic - The circuit diagram or logical map of a {PCB} using agreed symbols to describe electronic components and their connections. scoop @ deep dish scratchy - Inconsistent feel with changes in force or jumps in the stroke due to poor manufacturing or {lubing}. Opposite of {smooth}. scratchiness - A property of a {keyswitch}. Depends on the material and surface of the {stem}/{housing}. See: {lubing}. screw-in (stabilizer) - A {stabilizer} attached to the {PCB} by screws for better stability. sculpted (keycap profile) - A {keycap} profile with differently shaped {cap}s in different rows. (As opposed to {uniform} keycaps.) secondary legends - The {legend} on a keycap indicating characters/function of a secondary logical layer. Generally, characters typed by using a {modifier} like Shift/Alt/AltGr. serial - One way of wiring to connect the halves of a {split} keyboard (doc). ship of Theseus - A thought experiment: whether an object that has had all of its components replaced remains fundamentally the same object. Apply this to custom keyboards. ShiroMicro - A {controller} type. A {Pro Micro} clone with {mid-mount} USB C connector by /u/elfmimi. Sholes, Christopher Latham (1819-1890) - An inventor who patented the original {QWERTY} layout (among many other layouts) and designed one of the first commercially successful mechanical typewriters. Sholes and Glidden typewriter - An early, piano-like typewriter designed by {Sholes, Christofer Latham} from 1874 which overtake in the market from the {Hansen Writing Ball}. short - A mostly accidental path in a {circuit}. Generally, it's a problem, but can be also intentional ({hard reset}). shorting - To connect two wires/electronic components and closing the {circuit}. Signature Plastics - A {keycap} manufacturer known from its {SA} keycaps. silent stem - Rubber pads on the {rail}s to dampen the sound of the {stem} when hitting the {housing}. silicone grease - A material for {lubing} switches. silk screen - The (usually white) layer on top of the {soldermask} on a {PCB} for adding labels, markings or artwork. SK6812 - An addressable {LED} with voltage-independent color and brightness over a wide voltage range. LED quality is said to be better than {WS2812}. SK6812 mini - Mini version of the {SK6812} with 3.5mm*3.5mm {LED} size. No other difference. slant angle - Half of the {opening angle} in {split} boards. slave - The separate {split} half without direct connection to the PC (contrary to the {master}). sleeving - An external layer of cables to provide protection, increased stability or for aesthetics. Made of fabric or plastic mash. See: {Techflex}, {MDPC-X}. slope - The forward-backward facing of the keyboard. A {positive slope} and {negative slope} is the facing forwards and backwards, respectively. slope angle - The angle of forward-backward facing of the keyboard. SMD - Surface mounted electronic components and {soldering} method. smooth - Consistent linear feel with no changes in force or jumps in the stroke due to poor {lubing}. Opposite of {scratchy}. Sn60Pb40 - A solder material with 60% tin and 40% lead ({60/40}). socket - A device which makes temporary fixing of electronic components (e.g. a {switch} or {controller}) possible. See also: {hotswap}. socketing - A temporary fixing of an electronic component (e.g. {microcontroller}, {keyswitch}). See also: {hotswap}. soft reset - Software reset of the keyboard, usually with a key combination. (As opposed to hard reset.) solder mask - A protective layer on top of the {copper} foil in a {PCB}. This layer gives the PCB its color (green, black, white etc.). solder wire - The material you melt to solder. Comes in various thickness and compounds. soldering - The method to semi-permanently fix electronic components with the help of a {soldering iron} and {solder wire}. soldering iron - A tool for {soldering}. soldering station - A tool for {soldering}. soldering temperature - This one varies depending on the exact solder material or the component thickness, but 330-350°C is a good sound dampening - Coping with the sound of hollow {case}s. E.g. with {foam} or silicone. south-facing - E.g. a {switch} with {LED} holes in the front part of the bottom. SouthPaw - A community member and a {form factor} with the {numpad} on the left. SP @ Signature Plastics space FN - Turning Space into a modifier (on a standard keyboard) to access another logical layer. space-cadet - The {Symbolics space-cadet} keyboard designed by Tom Knight or a {keyset} with similar colorway. space-cadet shift - Parentheses on Shift keys when tapped. speed switch - A {keyswitch} with small {travel distance} to actuation. E.g. Kailh speed switches. spherical - A {keycap} profile with a spherical well on the top (contrary to a {cylindrical} one). split - A keyboard with two angled halves. Either separated or in one piece ({fixed-angle}). split angle - The full {opening angle} of the halves of a {split} keyboard ({slant angle} x 2). split Space - A Space key in two pieces for both thumbs. spray lubing - No. Don't do this. If you are lazy, check {bag-lubing} instead. spring - Part of a {keyswitch} sitting on the {housing pole}, controlling the {stem}'s vertical motion and partially defining the switch {weight}. spring ping - The (often unwanted) sound a {spring} makes during the keypress. See: {lubing} or {spring swap}. spring swap - To {mod} the {switch} by replacing the {spring} for altered {weight} or to mitigate {ping}. springless - A {switch} without a {spring}, e.g. a {Hall effect} one. sprue @ keycap sprue stab @ stabilizer stabilizer - A device with a metal rod to stabilize larger keys (equal to or over {2u}). (uni) stabilizer bar - The metal part of the {stabilizer}. stabilizer wire @ stabilizer bar staggering - The physical arrangement of keys in horizontally shifted rows, vertically shifted columns or in an {ortholinear} grid. standard bottom row - {1.25u} {modifier}s and {6.25u} spacebar. standard keyboard - The 104/105 key {fullsize} {ANSI}/{ISO}/{JIS} keyboard generally with {QWERTY} or its regional variant. stem - The moving inner part of a {keyswitch}, sitting on the {spring}. Stem color often indicates {switch type}. stem hole - The cutout in the {upper housing} for the {stem}. stem wobble - Movement (often unwanted) of the {stem} in N/S or E/W direction. More noticeable on higher {keycap} profiles, e.g. {SA}. steno @ stenography steno machine @ stenotype machine stenotype machine - A special keyboard for practitioners of {stenography}. stenograph @ stenotype machine stenography - A writing method mostly used by court reporters. Words are {chord}ed ({strokes}) with shortcuts, allowing typing speeds in the 200-300 {WPM} range (without the strain of standard typing). (See: stepped keys - A {keycap} shape to avoid accidental hitting of Caps Lock and other {1u}+ keys (especially before {stabilizer}s became common). sticker bomb - Covering the surface of the {case} with stickers to the point where the original surface is no longer visible (for aesthetics). stroke - Firing a {chord} in {stenography}. sublegend - Legends of the {secondary layer} on the {keycap}. Super - A {modifier} introduced on the {space-cadet} keyboard. Sometimes an alternative name for the {GUI key} (Windows/Command). supination @ forearm supination surface mounted (SMD) - A soldering method better fit for automated manufacturing, where the components are soldered on pads (contrary to {THM} soldering). SVG - A vector file format for {laser cutting} {plate}s and {case}s. Similar to {DXF}. switch - A keyswitch is the basic electronic component residing below the keycaps. switch filming @ filming switch opener - A tool to take apart the switch housing e.g. to access the spring or the stem for lubing. Can aggravate housing wobble. switch puller - A tool to remove keyswitches, e.g. from a {PCB} or {plate}. switch tester - A tool to test and store different {switch}es. Usually, in the form of an acrylic plate. switch type - Major groups of switches are {linear}, {tactile} and {clicky}. switch weight - A parameter representing the force/weight needed to activate a {keyswitch}. switching speed - A parameter of e.g. {diode}s representing the delay to change from ON to OFF state when the polarity changes. Depends on the junction charging/discharging and semiconductor material and quality. Symbolics space-cadet - A legendary keyboard designed by John L. Kulp in 1978. Known for its many layers and {modifier}s ({Hyper}, {Super}, {Meta}). (wiki) tactile - A non-{linear} {keyswitch}. Often used as a shorthand for silent tactiles. Another tactile with an audible click is a {clicky}. tactile bump - The inconsistency in the {stem}'s linearity to give feedback for typers. Overcoming this bump requires more force, thus, the {tactile force} of {tactiles} is often higher than their {actuation force}. tactile force - The keypress force measured at the {tactile point}. tactile point - The keypress distance where you experience the {tactile bump} (or {click}). tactile switch - A {keyswitch} with a {tactile} feedback (usually only switches without a clicking mechanism). Tai-Hao - A Taiwanese manufacturer of various {keycap}s. Also a {keycap profile} ({cubic}). Tangerine - A {linear} {switch} with {POM} {stem} and {UHMWPE} {housing} manufactured by {JWK} (more). tap - A short press and release of the key (in contrast to a {hold}). tap dance - A powerful {QMK} feature developed by algernon. You can specify keys that behave differently based on the amount of times they have been tapped (docs). tapping term - The time limit defining what's a {tap} and what's a {hold}. Its default value is 200ms in {QMK} (docs). TEA - A {low profile} {keycap} profile by designed by u/adroom. Techflex - A type and family of cable {sleeving} and their manufacturer. Teensy - An {AVR} {development board} family by PJRC. tenkeyless - A keyboard without the numeric pad. tenting - A laterally inclined {split} keyboard design. tertiary legends - The {legend} on a keycap indicating characters/functions of the tertial {logical layer}. through hole @ through hole mounted through hole mounted (THM) - A soldering method involving holes on the {PCB} and components with long legs (in contrast to {SMD}). THM @ through hole mounted thock - The low pitched sound of a keypress. thread per inch - A parameter of a {string}. thumb cluster - The area for {thumb key}s, especially on {split} {physical layout}s (e.g. {ErgoDox}, {Atreus}). thumb fan - A {thumb cluster} arranged in an arch. thumb key - A key pressed with the thumb. In contrast to the {standard keyboard} boards with a {thumb cluster} use thumbs for more than just the spacebar. tilting - The lateral inclination of the {split} keyboard halves. Alleviating {forearm pronation}. tilt angle - The angle of the {tilting} of the halves of a {split} keyboard. TKL @ tenkeyless TMK - A keyboard {firmware}. {QMK} is based on {TMK}. Topre - A Japanese keyboard manufacturer and their capacitive {switch} type. total travel @ total travel distance total travel distance - The full distance of a keypress until the {stem} hits the {bottom housing}. See: {bottom out}. trace - A path of copper on a {PCB}. trading keyboard - A custom or application specific keyboard for trading, e.g. Reuters keyboards manufactured by Trash Panda - A regular {linear} {keyswitch}. travel distance - The distance a key has to be pushed down to be registered. Some {low profile} and {speed switch}es have shorter travel distances. tray mount - A {mounting style} securing the {PCB}/{plate} to the bottom {case} housing with {mounting post}s. Tribosys - A family of {lube}s. Tribosys 3203 - A {lube} generally used for {switch}es. Tribosys 3204 - A {lube} generally used for {switch}es. Similar to {Krytox 204g0}. trigram @ trigraph trigraph - Three consecutive characters of a {corpus}. Trigraph frequency is an inportant element of an {evaluation algorithm} and {logical layout optimization} in general. triple-shot - A {keycap}s {mold}ed with three different colors. One mold for the external shape and two more molds for the primary and {secondary legend} makes this manufacturing method slow and expensive. TRS - A type of 3-wire cable to connect {split} halves with the {serial} method (doc). TRRS - A type of 4-wire cable to connect {split} halves with {I2C} (doc). Tsangan - A layout which includes HHKB, 7U spacebar, split right shift, split backspace. Named after the Geekhack mod who kept asking for compatible keysets. top housing - Part of a {switch} protecting and guiding the {stem}. May be hit by the {keycap} during a keypress. See: {housing}. top mount - A {mounting style} securing the {PCB}/{plate} to the upper frame of the {case}. One type of this with {O-ring}s is called {burger mount}. top out - The {stem} hitting the upper {housing} when releasing the key. Sometimes with unwanted sound amplified by {housing wobble}. touch typer - A typist typing without looking at the keyboard. touch typing - The proper method of typing: without looking at the keyboard (as opposed to {hunt-and-peck} style). typing speed - The speed of typing, usually expressed in {WPM}, i.e. {KPM}/5. However, dividing with standard 5-character words is used ambiguously (with or without added spaces). u - key unit, like 7u spacebar, {2u} Shift or {all-1u} {ortho}. uC - An abbreviation of {microcontroller}. UHK - Ultimate Hacking Keyboard. A modular {split} with {horizontal staggering}. UHMWPE - A {switch housing} material. ulnar abduction @ ulnar deviation ulnar deviation - The outwards bending of the wrist in the plane of the desk. Alleviated by {split}/{fixed-angle} keyboards. underglow - The {LED} {backlight} on the keyboard. These LEDs usually shine away from the {PCB} towards the desk surface. underlight @ underglow uniform (keycap profile) - In a uniform profile {cap}s in different rows have the same shape (contrary to {sculpted} profiles). E.g. {DSA}, {XDA}, {KAM}. Universal Serial Bus @ USB upper housing @ top housing USB - Universal Serial Bus is a standard developed to standardize the connection of computer peripherals, such as keyboards. USB C - A newer {USB} {connector type}. USB host - Your computer or the device your keyboard is plugged into. USB micro - An older {USB} {connector type}. USB standard - The commuication standard describing {keycodes} and behaviour of compliant keyboards (doc). UV printing - A {legend} printing method. Lacquer applied to the {keycap} is treated with UV. velocikey - A {firmware} feature that lets you control the speed of lighting effects with your {typing speed} (doc). vertical staggering @ columnar staggering VIA - A desktop configurator for {QMK} to change {keymap}s ( vomit - A mixture of {keycap}s from various {keyset}s on a board, or a similar random mix from e.g. a {grab bag}. Wada, Eiiti (1931- ) - Designer of the {HHKB layout}. weight @ switch weight winglatch - A style of {leg}s on the {upper housing} used to attach it to the {bottom housing}. winkeyless - A layout similar to the invader layout, with a gap between Ctrl and Alt. wire - The essential part for {handwiring}. Also, {stabilizer wire}. wire balancing - Straightening/balancing the {stabilizer} wire to eliminate {rattle}. An unbalanced {stab} may otherwise cause rattle on one side of the spacebar. wirewrap - An old technique somewhere between {handwiring} and {PCB}s, wrapping wire around posts without {soldering}. WKL @ winkeyless WKL blocker - Generally a 0.75u wide block on a {winkeyless} case at the positions between Ctrl and Alt. WoB - White {label} on black {keycap}. A popular color combination. wobble - Unwanted movement of the {keycap}/{stem} or the {housing}. The {housing wobble} may be mitigated by {filming}. word boundary error - Multi-{stroke} conflicts in {stenography}. Some words are typed with more {stroke}s and {Plover} can't tell if it has to put a space or continue with the word. Workman - An {alternative layout}. WPM - Words Per Minute. 'Word' is usually 5 chars, sometimes 6 (because of the inconsistent handling of spaces). WPH - Words Per Hour. See: {WPM}. wrist extension - Bending your hand backwards at the wrist, towards the posterior side of the forearm. Sustained wrist extension can cause healt issues. wrist flexion - Bending your hand down at the wrist, so that your palm faces in toward your arm. Opposite: {wrist extension} wrist rest - A support for your wrist to mitigate {wrist extension}. WRMDs @ WRMSDs WRMSDs - Work related musculoskeletal disorders. A group of the many keyboard related health issues. WS2812 - A type of addressable {LED}s commonly used in keyboard projects. WS2812B - Same as {WS2812} but with reverse connection protection. WS2813 - An {LED} or addressable LED strip similar to {WS2812} and {WS2812B} but with two data signal wires. Failure of an LED won't affect signal transfer unless two consecutive LEDs are broken. XDA - A {uniform}, {spherical} {keycap} profile. Similar to {DSA}, but slightly higher with sharper edges. YC8 - A type of detachable {aviator connector}. ZMK - A keyboard {firmware} with wireless keyboards in focus: